The country's proximity to the equator means that Colombia climate sees little variation in temperature throughout the year.
Despite its proximity to the Equator, Colombia does not have a uniform warm climate throughout the year, as there are a many geographical and atmospheric factors that influence the range of climates of the country.
Temperature does change with altitude, creating various climatic zones from hot lowlands to freezing Andean peaks. In fact, the striking variety in temperature and precipitation results principally from differences in elevation.
As a general rule, the temperature falls about 6°C with every 1.000m increase in altitude. If the average temperature at sea level is 30°C, it will be around 24°C at 1.000m, 18°C at 2.000m and 12°C at 3.000m.
Differences between daytime and nighttime temperatures are also affected by altitude. While the highlands may experience warm days and freezing nights, the lowlands have days and nights almost equally hot.
In practical terms, Colombia has two real seasons, dry (summer) and wet (winter). The dry season is usually in December-January and July-August, and the rains come in April-May and October-November - although this can vary considerably.
The pattern of seasons, however, varies in different parts of the country, and it's been influenced over the last few years by the "warm event" and "cold event" known as El Niño and La Niña, respectively.
Colombia climate shows five distinct zones: tropical rainforests, savannas, steppes, deserts and mountain climate, which is further subdivided into: tierra caliente (hot land) tierra templada (temperate land) tierra fría (cold land), tierra helada (frozen land) and Páramo.
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes, this is the case of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and other high altitude peaks, where climate is determined by elevation.
These variations in climate depending on its altitude are called thermal floors. Altitude controls not only the climate but also the agriculture of a given area, and production is amazingly varied.
So let's review each of the five climate zones...
For more info regarding Colombia climate you can check the official info provided by IDEAM - Instituto de Hidrologia, Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales - site in Spanish.