Facts About Colombia..


Here's some facts about Colombia (South America), roughly twice the size of France, is the second largest Spanish speaking country in the world after Mexico.

Located in the NW of South America, it's bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil, to the west by the Pacific ocean.

To the south by Ecuador and Peru and to the north by the Caribbean sea. It borders with Panama to the NW.

Before becoming the actual Republic of Colombia - in 1886 - the country underwent several stages of transformation, dating back to the very beginning of the New World.

In fact, its name comes after Christopher Columbus - the Italian navigator and explorer who initiated the process of Spanish colonization - and it was first part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, later to become the Republic of New Granada (1830) - when Venezuela and Ecuador broke away.

It was subsequently named the Granadine Confederation (1858) and then the United States of Colombia (1863).
For a better appreciation of the history of Colombia please refer to history of South America.

Before the advent of Spanish conquerors its original dwellers were the Chibchas - part of the linguistic group of the Carib - in the highlands, along with the Muisca, Quimbaya and Tairona.
Actually, Muisca Indians are considered to be the most developed indigenous group after the Incas, in Peru.

Colombia Geography:

Being the only country in South America with coastline in both the Pacific ocean and Caribbean sea, the geography of Colombia is marked by the mighty Andes mountains, conforming three separate branches where the country's major cities are located...

  • Cordillera Occidental: It runs along the Pacific coast. Cali is found here.
  • Cordillera Central: Between the Magdalena and Cauca river valleys, with the city of Medellin.
  • Cordillera Oriental: Reaching the Guajira Peninsula, includes Colombia's capital: Bogota.

Highest peaks in the country are Cristobal Colon and Simon Bolivar, at an altitude of 5,775 m. (19,000 f.) above sea level, in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range.
Major cities on the Caribbean include Cartagena de Indias and Barranquilla.

To the East of the Andes, the savannah region (Los llanos), part of the Orinoco river system. To the SE , the Amazon rainforest, with the city of Leticia at its epicenter, main getaway to Brazil and Peru through the Amazon river.

The insular region includes...

  • San Andres and Providencia (on the Caribbean)
  • Malpelo and Gorgona islands (on the Pacific ocean)

As for major rivers, the list includes Magdalena, Cauca Caqueta, Putumayo, Atrato and Vaupes.


Facts About Colombia:

  • Capital: Bogota.
    Population: 7.1 million (2007 estimate).
  • Area:
    1,141,748 sq km (440,831 sq miles).
  • Population:
    45 million (2008 estimate).
  • Climate:
    Tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands. Find more info at Colombia Climate.
  • Electricity:
    Mostly 110 volts AC, 60Hz. American-style two-pin plugs.
  • Language:
    Spanish is the official language. Local dialects and some English, French, German and Italian are also spoken.
  • Religion:
    Christianity, with 90% Roman Catholic; small Protestant and Jewish minorities.
  • Time zone:
    GMT -5.

Other facts about Colombia include its richness in natural resources. Its main exports are represented by emeralds (world's leading source), coffee (provably the most worldwide known), petroleum, coal and gold.
It's also the leading supplier of flowers to US.